We highly recommend this engaging and thorough review of the research and literature on principles for connecting young people with nature. Although it was written in 2011, the key messages and examples used are still very relevant for kaiako. This article gives a quick summary of the key sections and you can download the full PDF (20 pages) using the link at the bottom of this page.
"They need to be outside. They need to explore, get dirty, find stuff—they need to have fun." - Daniel Kriesberg
Carla summarises research and case studies about children's changing ability to explore and understand the world, and how this relates to learning about and in nature. She provides guidance across three developmental stages: Young children (up to 6 years), Middle years (6 - 12 years) and Young people (13 years and older).
Rather than introducing children younger than 12 years old to complex environmental issues, abstract concepts, and the need for new behaviours ... the environmental curriculum should be matched to children’s ability to understand and explore their world ... if empowerment is the goal, nature-based play and other activities that foster a love for the earth should be the precursor. - David Sobel
Artistic and creative approaches (e.g. drama, storytelling, music, dance, photography, poetry, creative writing, visual arts, film) have been shown to be an important way to facilitate and foster affective knowledge and ‘deepen the emotional connections between people and places' (see references on Pg. 9 of the document). Carla focuses on drama, visual arts and storytelling, with a section on the importance of oral narratives to strengthen our sense of place.
"Stories join together the pieces of our experiences and the experiences of others in a way that gives order, significance and meaning to the chaos around us. What home is without its stories? Without stories, can there be a home? ... Stories can be powerful things. They give shape to our reality." - Ralph Lutts
Click on the link provided above to download the full resource.